In a number of past newsletters, three articles have extolled the value of
iodine supplementation. A review of the older research as well as newer
research has revealed that iodine deficiency is widespread and may be
responsible for many underlying conditions including cancers of the breast and
ovary, thyroid disorders, chronic fatigue, and fibromyalgia.
Appropriate testing for iodine deficiency was reviewed. The most accurate test
to measure iodine levels is the iodine loading test. This was covered in the
November 2005 Vitamin Research News. After taking 50 mg of an iodine/iodide
combination, 24 hours of urine is collected. The amount of iodine excreted is
measured. When there is iodine deficiency present, little iodine will be
excreted during the testing. When there is sufficient body iodine levels
present, larger amounts of iodine will be excreted.
I have been involved in the iodine project for approximately four years. During
this time, I have tested iodine levels (with my partners) in over 4,000
patients. My results have been consistent: over 95 percent of patients have
tested low for iodine.
The iodine loading test has proved useful to gauge the body iodine levels. The
first question to come to mind if one tests low for iodine is, "Shouldn't I
just take iodine?"
The best results with iodine, as with all nutritional supplements, can be
achieved as part of a comprehensive holistic program. As I describe in my book,
Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can't Live Without It 2nd Edition, adding
magnesium and vitamin C will enhance the effects of iodine. This is
particularly true for individuals experiencing a number of factors related to
iodine. This article will cover four major factors sometimes associated with
iodine supplementation and how vitamin C and magnesium can support individuals
with these concerns:
2. Autoimmune thyroid disorders
3. Detoxification Reactions
In my experience, an allergy to inorganic, non-radioactive iodine is very rare.
An allergy to radioactive iodine dye, commonly used in many medical procedures,
does not guarantee an allergy to inorganic iodine/iodide such as Iodoral®. If
an allergy is shown to iodine, do not continue to take it until you seek
Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders
Some physicians feel that iodine supplementation causes autoimmune thyroid
disorders. They also claim that those with autoimmune thyroid disorders should
not take iodine as it will exacerbate their condition. Before conventional
medicine began using radioactive iodine to treat autoimmune thyroid disorders,
large doses of iodine was the treatment of choice in treating autoimmune
thyroid disorders. There are numerous reports in the literature, some dating
back well over 100 years, showing the benefits of using iodine in excess of the
RDA to treat autoimmune thyroid illnesses.1-4
If iodine was the cause of autoimmune thyroid illnesses, these illnesses should
have been decreasing over the last 30 years. The opposite has occurred. In the
United States, iodine levels have fallen approximately 50 percent over the last
30 years while, at the same time, autoimmune thyroid disorders have been
My clinical experience has shown that in an iodine deficient state, higher
doses of iodine, as part of a holistic treatment program, are an effective and
safe way to treat autoimmune thyroid illness without appreciable side effects.
Iodine can cause a detoxification reaction in the body by facilitating the
body's release of the toxic halides fluoride and bromide. If the body's
detoxification pathways are overloaded when the toxic halides are being
released, a detoxification reaction can be triggered. A detoxification reaction
can take the form of fatigue, muscle aches, fever, diarrhea, and brain fog,
skin rashes, etc.
Though a detoxification reaction to iodine usage is rare, it has happened. A
detoxification reaction can be minimized with using nutritional support (vitamins
and minerals), balancing the hormonal system, getting the body's pH balanced,
eating healthy foods, and other holistic treatments. This will be discussed
more at the end of this article.
Iodism occurs when the dose of iodine is too high and results in a metallic
taste in the mouth, increased salivation, sneezing, headache, and acne. Also,
sinus headache, especially headache in the frontal area, and a sense of fever
may be present. Iodism occurs in a small minority of patients and is easily rectified
by adjusting the dosage of iodine used.
As with using any nutritional supplement, a comprehensive holistic treatment
plan provides the best results. Magnesium is an important part of the iodine
treatment plan. Magnesium deficiency is very common. Magnesium is nature's
relaxing agent. Magnesium levels (via red blood cell magnesium levels) should
be assessed and supplementation instituted. Magnesium supplementation will
likely ensure optimal results with iodine.
Vitamin C is also an integral nutrient in the iodine treatment plan. I reported
a case study showing how the use of Vitamin C along with iodine helped to
improve and possibly repair the transport mechanism for iodine in a patient
with Graves' disease.6 As with magnesium, it is best to use Vitamin C before
beginning iodine supplementation.
My experience has also shown that proper mineral support also aids iodine
supplementation. Testing for mineral deficiencies and correcting these
deficiencies before instituting iodine supplementation leads to the best
results. I frequently have my patients measure their pH levels. If an acidic
condition is present, correcting the pH imbalance before beginning iodine
therapy is the correct way to go. How do you correct a pH imbalance? Eating
whole foods, eliminating refined foods, beginning mineral supplementation
including magnesium can all help the situation. Iodine itself is also an
alkalinizing agent for the body.
If one is found to be iodine deficient, it is best to correct other nutrient
imbalances before instituting iodine supplementation. Proper dosing of
magnesium, Vitamin C and minerals will maximize the response to iodine. Before
beginning any nutritional program, the best results can be achieved when
working with a health care practitioner skilled in the use of natural agents.
1. Trousseau, A. Lectures on clinical medicine. Vol. 1. Lecture XIX,
Exophthalmic goiter of Graves' disease, New Sydenham Society, London. 1868.
2. Thompson W. Prolonged treatment of exophthalmic goiter by iodine alone. Arch
Int Med. 1930;45:481-502.
3. Plummer H. Results of administering iodine to patients having exophthalmic
goiter. JAMA. 1923;80:1955.
4. Thompson W. The range of effective iodine dosage in exophthalmic goiter.
Arch Int Med. 1930;45:261-281.
5. Hollowell JE, et al. Iodine nutrition in the United States. Trends and public
health implications: Iodine excretion data from National Health and Nutrition
Examination Surveys I and III (1971-74 and 1988-94). J Clin Endocrinol Metab.
6. Abraham GE, Brownstein D. Evidence that the administration of Vitamin C
improves a defective cellular transport mechanism for iodine: A case report.
The Original Internist. 2005;12(3):125-130.
Iodine: The Universal Nutrient
textbooks of medicine, endocrinology and thyroidology, the essential element
iodine is mentioned only in connection with the most severe forms of deficiency
of this nutrient: cretinism, iodine-deficiency induced goiter and
hypothyroidism. Due to thyroid fixation, inhibitors of iodine uptake and
utilization by target cells are called goitrogens, that is, substances causing
thyroid enlargement, implying that iodine inhibitors only influence thyroid
function. Perhaps, there is a restraining order preventing iodine inhibitors
from interfering with iodine in extrathyroidal target organs. Many physicians
would be surprised to learn that more than a hundred years ago, iodine was
called "The Universal Medicine", and was used in several clinical conditions.
Nobel Laureate Albert Szent Gy rgyi,1 the physician who discovered Vitamin C in
"When I was a medical student, iodine in the form of KI was the universal
medicine. Nobody knew what it did, but it did something and did something good.
We students used to sum up the situation in this little rhyme:
If ye don't know where,
what, and why
Prescribe ye then K and I.
Our medical predecessors, .were keen observers and the universal application of
iodide might have been not without foundation."
Recent research on the medical applications of this essential nutrient may
prove indeed that iodine is a universal medicine, or more appropriately, a
universal nutrient.2-13 Only 8 years after the discovery of iodine from seaweed
by French chemist Bernard Courtois in 1811, Swiss physician J.F. Coindet who
previously used successfully burnt sponge and seaweed for simple goiter,
reasoned that iodine could be the active ingredient in seaweed. In 1819, he
tested tincture of iodine at 250 mg per day, an excessive amount by today's
standard, in 150 goiter patients with great success. He published his results
in 1820.14 Coindet was the first physician to use the newly discovered element
iodine in medical practice. Since then, the collective experience of a large
number of clinicians from the U.S. over the last century has resulted in the
recommended daily amount of 0.1 to 0.3 ml of Lugol, containing from 12.5 to
37.5 mg elemental iodine, for iodine/iodide supplementation.5,15 The Lugol
solution was developed by French physician, Jean Lugol in 1829 for treatment of
infectious diseases using oral ingestion of his preparation.16 The Lugol
solution contains 5 percent iodine and 10 percent potassium iodide in water.
Iodine is not very soluble in water, with aqueous saturation at 0.33 gm
iodine/L. The addition of potassium iodide to an aqueous solution of iodine
stabilizes the iodine by forming a complex triodide I3- and increases the
aqueous solubility of iodine in the form of a triodide complex 150 times. The
range of daily intake of Lugol solution for iodine supplementation based on
clinical observation of the patient's overall well being turned out to be the
exact range of iodine needed for whole body sufficiency, based on an
iodine/iodide loading test developed recently.5
British physicians recommended a similar range of daily intake of iodine in the
form of hydrogen iodide as the ranges of iodine recommended by U.S. physicians
in the form of Lugol solution. The recommended daily intake of hydriodic acid
syrup was ml.17 The
syrup is prepared by the British apothecary from an aqueous stock solution
containing 10 percent hydrogen iodide (HI), which is diluted 10 fold with
syrups of different flavors. When hydrogen iodide is dissolved in water it
forms hydriodic acid. The syrup would contain 1 percent hydrogen iodide
equivalent. This would compute to 10 mg iodide per ml. So, the recommended
daily amount of elemental iodine was from 20 to 40 mg.
The element iodine was used for the treatment of hypo- and hyperthyroidism5 and
for many other medical conditions.18 For hyperthyroidism, the daily dose ranged
from 6.25 mg to 180 mg elemental iodine in the form of Lugol solution with the
most common intake of 90 mg achieving success rate as high as 90 percent.5
With the availability of thyroid hormones in
the 1930s, thyroidologists started using these preparations in patients with
iodine deficiency and simple goiter instead of the previously used inorganic
iodine/iodide preparations. The situation was aggravated by the fact that
during the same period, the public was relying on iodized table salt instead of
iodine/iodide preparations from apothecaries for supplementation, due to the
propaganda favoring the use of iodized salt.19 The thyroidologists assumed
that, with iodization of table salt, iodine deficiency became a thing of the
past, because of the positive effect of iodized salt on the incidence of
goiter. That was the beginning of thyroid fixation. It only requires 0.05 mg
iodide per day to control goiter.5 With an estimated daily intake of 10 gm of
table salt by the U.S.
population and at an iodide concentration of 75 PPM, the daily intake of iodide
averaged 750 g or 0.75 mg. There are 30,000 times more chloride than iodide on
a molar basis in iodized salt. Due to competition for intestinal absorption
between the halides chloride and iodide, only 10 percent of iodide in iodized
salt is bioavailable.6 This bioavailable amount of 75 g or 0.075 mg iodide is
500 times less than 0.3 ml of Lugol solution previously recommended by U.S.
physicians. Iodization of salt decreased markedly the prevalence of goiter
because it only takes 0.05 mg per day of iodide to achieve this goal.5
Most physicians by the 1950s neglected the rest of the human body, in terms of
sufficiency for iodine, and forgot that their predecessors were using amounts
of iodine/iodide 2 orders of magnitude greater than the amounts present in the
average daily consumption of table salt. This was mainly due to iodophobic
publications appearing in the late 1940s and also due to the erroneous
assumption that absence of goiter means iodine sufficiency. Published studies
on the safe and effective use of Lugol solution in hypo- and hyperthyroidism
mysteriously disappeared during the 1940s, concurrent with the appearance of
iodophobic publications. The promotion of thyroid extracts and thyroid hormones
as an alternative to Lugol solution in the management of iodine deficiency
induced goiter and hypothyroidism; and of goitrogens and radioiodide as an
alternative to Lugol solution in the management of hyperthyroidism with both
alternatives well synchronized with the iodophobic publications. It was a
brilliant move and it worked wonderfully. By the 1970s, following the
iodophobic publication of Wolf20, physicians concluded that one must avoid
inorganic non-radioactive iodine "like leprosy," unless it was incorporated
into the toxic organic iodine-containing drugs. Then, iodine could be tolerated
because iodine could be blamed for the toxicity of these drugs.
Against this background, a 1993 publication by Ghent et al21 reported the beneficial effects
of 5 mg iodine ingested daily for approximately one year in 1,368 patients with
Fibrocystic Disease of the Breast (FDB). I became aware of Ghent's publication in 1997. Ghent's study did not
confirm Wolff's prediction that daily iodine intake of 2000 ug (2 mg) was
"excessive and potentially harmful." Based on academic credentials and
reputation, the opinion of thyroidologist Wolff from the National Institute of
Health would prevail over the findings of Ghent et al. However, being
interested in facts only, not in preconceived opinions of famous
thyroidologists, I initiated an extensive search of the literature on iodine in
medicine 7 years ago, combined with some original clinical research.7
The literature search revealed that 60 million mainland Japanese consume a
daily average of 13.8 mg of elemental iodine, and they are one of the
healthiest nations based on overall well being and cancer statistics.7 Japanese
women do not stop consuming iodine-rich foods during pregnancy, and Japanese
fetuses are exposed to maternal peripheral levels of iodide at concentrations
of 10-5M to 10-6M. Either the Japanese are mutants capable of surviving on
toxic levels of iodine or we have been grossly deceived. The human body needs
at least 100 times the RDA, which was established very recently in 1980 and
confirmed in 1989!!
After overcoming the delusion that inorganic non-radioactive forms of iodine
are toxic, and becoming aware that the inorganic non-radioactive forms of
iodine were extremely safe (and were used extensively by U.S. physicians for many medical
conditions), I initiated the Iodine Project. It is very exciting to learn that
the team at Vitamin Research Products has decided to join the Iodine Project.
Administration of iodine in liquid solution is not very accurate, may stain
clothing, has an unpleasant taste and causes gastric irritation. We decided to
use a precisely quantified tablet form of Lugol. To prevent gastric irritation,
the iodine/iodide preparation was absorbed into a colloidal silica excipient;
and to eliminate the unpleasant taste of iodine, the tablets were coated with a
thin film of pharmaceutical glaze.2
To confirm the safety of the Lugol tablets, pilot studies were performed with
tablets of Lugol containing from 1 mg to 12.5 mg of elemental iodine. Following
the pilot studies, ten female subjects, 7 with breast symptomatology, were
studied for 3 months at 12.5 mg per day. Pre and post-supplementation
evaluation of blood chemistry, hematology, thyroid function tests and
ultrasonometry of the thyroid gland were performed. The results obtained in
these female subjects using a tablet form of Lugol solution (Iodoral®) at 12.5
mg per day for 3 months confirmed Ghent's
observations and the safety of the Lugol tablets. The data were published in
the Original Internist in 2002.2
The bioavailability of a Lugol tablet
(Iodoral®) containing 12.5 mg elemental iodine was evaluated by measuring 24 hr
urine levels of iodide together with the minerals, trace elements and toxic
metals before and after administration of this preparation. The results
obtained following iodine supplementation revealed that in some subjects, the
urine levels of mercury, lead and cadmium increased by several fold after just
one day of supplementation. For aluminum, this increased excretion was not
observed usually until after one month or more on the iodine supplementation.
Since this observation was made on a limited number of assays, it needs to be
confirmed using a well designed protocol in a large number of patients.
Based on data available in the medical literature, urinary iodide levels are
considered the best index of iodine intake.3 The initial results of the
bioavailability study suggested that the Lugol tablets were not well absorbed
since only 20 to 30 percent of the administered amount was recovered in the 24
hr. urine collection of 5 subjects tested.3 Just in case medical textbooks were
wrong, and the explanation for the low recovery of iodide is body retention of
iodine/iodide, the supplementation was continued for one month and then urine
iodide levels were measured again in the 24 hr. urine collection. Medical
textbooks were wrong. The subjects excreted a mean of 50 percent of the amount
ingested, with one subject excreting 96 percent of the ingested amount.
The implication of such an observation was that an iodine/iodide-loading test
could be developed to assess not just thyroid sufficiency for iodine, but
requirement of the whole human body for that essential element. However,
instead of a one-month loading test, further studies were performed to shorten
this test to a single ingestion of the preparation. Another group of 6
subjects, (3 males and 3 females) were evaluated with 24 hr urinary iodide
levels after ingesting one, two and three tablets of the same preparation. The
mean percent excretions were: 1 Tab = 22; 2 Tab = 23 and 3 Tab = 25. In a third
group of 6 subjects, urine iodide levels were evaluated following 4 tablets of
the same preparation. The mean percent excretion was 39. (Fig. 1) For the
loading test, a single ingestion of 4 tablets was chosen.5 This dose resulted
in the highest mean percent iodide excreted with the widest interindividual
variations. Because of the improved overall well being reported by the subjects
who achieved 90 percent or more iodide excreted, sufficiency was arbitrarily
set as 90 percent .
Whole body sufficiency for iodine correlated
well with overall well being, and some subjects could tell when they achieved
sufficiency even before knowing the results of the test. Iodine sufficiency was
associated with a sense of overall well being, lifting of "brain fog," feeling
warmer in cold environments, increased energy, needing less sleep, achieving
more in less time, experiencing regular bowel movements and improved skin
complexion. Several clinical conditions where whole body iodine deficiency may
play an important role are listed in Table I.
The iodine/iodide loading test is based on the concept that the normally
functioning human body has a mechanism to retain ingested iodine until whole
body sufficiency for iodine is achieved. During orthoiodosupplementation, a
negative feedback mechanism is triggered that progressively adjusts the
excretion of iodine to balance the intake. As the body iodine content
increases, the percent of the iodine load retained decreases with a concomitant
increase in the amount of iodide excreted in the 24 hr urine collection. When
whole body sufficiency for iodine is achieved, the absorbed iodine/iodide is
quantitatively excreted as iodide in the urine.5-7
After 3 months of supplementation with 50 mg
iodine/iodide per day, most non-obese subjects not exposed to excess goitrogens
achieved whole body iodine sufficiency, arbitrarily defined as 90 percent or
more of the iodine load excreted in the 24 hr urine collections.5,6 Adult
subjects retained approximately 1.5 gm of iodine when they reach sufficiency.6
In patients with a normal gastrointestinal absorption of iodine but with a very
defective iodine retention system, the absorbed iodine is quantitatively
excreted in the urine with little or no retention. In these rare cases, the
loading test will suggest whole body iodine sufficiency (90 percent or more
excreted) but the serum inorganic iodide levels 24 hrs after the iodine load
will remain low (less than 0.13 mg/L).7 The inefficient iodine retention
mechanism could be due to either a defective cellular iodine transport system
or due to blockage of this iodine cellular transport by iodine inhibitors that
compete with iodide for the halide binding site of the symporter system and for
iodine utilization. In one such case8, oral administration of Vitamin C
sustained release at 3 gm per day improved significantly the defective cellular
transport system for iodine (See Fig. 2 & 3).
The side effects reported with the use of inorganic non-radioactive iodine are:
acne-like skin lesions in certain areas of your body
headache in the frontal sinus
unpleasant brassy taste
increased salivation and sneezing
Based on the experience of clinicians with several thousands of patients on
Iodoral®, with daily amounts ranging from 6.25 to 50 mg for up to 3 years, the
incidence of the above side effects has been estimated at 1 percent.12,13
Orthoiodosupplementation induces a detoxification reaction in some patients
with high bromide levels7,8, including increased body odor and cloudy urine.
The body odor lasts one to two weeks, but the cloudy urine may last several
months before clearing up. It is of interest to note that the pre- iodine
loading urine samples in these cases were clear, but following
orthoiodosupplementation, the urine samples became very cloudy with an
unpleasant odor and a thick sedimentation upon standing. Although these cases
were associated with high bromide excretion (greater than 200 mg per 24 hr), it
is not clear if the presence of this halogen in the urine sample was the cause
of the odor and cloudiness.
Increased fluid intake and a complete nutritional program emphasizing magnesium
instead of calcium minimize these side effects. Administration of magnesium in
daily amounts up to 1200 mg eliminated the body odor but not the cloudy urine.
Scrubbing the skin with a vegetable brush while bathing is recommended in those
cases. Occasionally, the released bromide from storage sites induced decreased
thyroid function, bromide being a potent goitrogen.5,8 If the loading test
provokes high urine bromide levels, it is best to start the patient on a low
dose of iodine (1/2 to 1 tablet Iodoral®) and progressively increase the daily
intake for optimal response to bring serum and urine bromide levels below 10
mg/L and 10 mg per 24 hr respectively. In some patients, it may take up to 2
years. Bromide is ubiquitous in our homes and environment. Bromine-containing
fire retardants are in our carpets, our clothes, even children's clothes! The
question: Is this due to collective stupidity or a well planned conspiracy?
Since chloride increases renal clearance of bromide8, a trial of chloride load
(6-10 gm per day) would decrease the time required for bromide detoxification.
Use unprocessed sea salt instead of processed iodized table salt. If serum and
urine bromide levels are not available, it is best to start with a daily amount
of one tablet of Iodoral® and increasing the amount to two tablets after one
week, three tablets after two weeks and four tablets after three weeks. A
complete nutritional program emphasizing magnesium is recommended. Use clinical
observation of the patient's response and overall well being to titrate the
iodine supplementation like our medical predecessors who did not have access to
serum thyroid hormone levels and procedures for assessing whole body
sufficiency for iodine.
Summary of findings
Based on a review of the literature, and recent clinical research studies2-13,
the concept of orthoiodosupplementation can be summarized as follows:
1. The nutrient iodine is essential for every cell of the human body requiring
peripheral concentrations of inorganic iodide ranging from 10-6M to 10-5M.
2. In non-obese subjects without a defecting cellular transport system for
iodine, these concentrations can be achieved with daily intake of 12.5 mg to 50
mg elemental iodine. The adult body retains approximately 1.5 gm iodine at
sufficiency. At such time, the ingested iodine is quantitatively excreted in
the urine as iodide.
3. The thyroid gland is the most efficient organ of the human body, capable of
concentrating iodide by 2 orders of magnitude to reach 10-6M iodide required
for the synthesis of thyroid hormones when peripheral levels of inorganic
iodide are in the 10-8M range.
4. Goiter and cretinism are evidence of extremely severe iodine deficiency,
because the smallest intake of iodine that would prevent these conditions, that
is 0.05 mg per day, is 1000 times less than the optimal intake of 50 mg
5. The thyroid gland has a protective mechanism, limiting the uptake of
peripheral iodide to a maximum of 0.6 mg per day when 50 mg or more elemental
iodine are ingested. This amount therefore would serve as a preventive measure
against radioactive fallout.
6. An intake of 50 mg elemental iodine per day would achieve peripheral
concentration of iodide at 10-5M, which is the concentration of iodide markedly
enhancing the singlet triplet radiationless transition. Singlet oxygen causes
oxidative damage to DNA and macromolecules, predisposing to the carcinogenic
effects of these reactive oxygen species.5 This effect would decrease DNA
damage, with an anticarcinogenic effect.
7. Preliminary data so far suggest that orthoiodosupplementation results in
detoxification of the body from the toxic metals aluminum, cadmium, lead and
8. Orthoiodosupplementation increases urinary excretion of fluoride and
bromide, decreasing the iodine-inhibiting effects of these halides.
9. Most patients on a daily intake ranging from 12.5 mg to 50 mg elemental
iodine reported higher energy levels and greater mental clarity with 50 mg (4
tablets Iodoral), daily. The amount of iodine used in patients with Fibrocystic
Disease of the Breast by Ghent
et al20 is 0.1 mg/Kg BW per day, 10 times below the optimal daily intake of 50
mg. In our experience, patients with this clinical condition responded faster
and more completely when ingesting 50 mg iodine/iodide per day.
10. For best results, orthoiodosupplementation should be part of a complete
nutritional program, emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium.
11. A beneficial effect of orthoiodosupplementation was observed in the
clinical conditions listed in Table I.5,7,12,13
12. The iodine/iodide loading test and serum inorganic iodide levels are
reliable means of assessing whole body sufficiency for elemental iodine for
quantifying the bioavailability of the forms of iodine ingested and for
assessing cellular uptake and utilization of iodine by target cells.
13. Orthoiodosupplementation may be the safest, simplest, most effective and
least expensive way to solve the healthcare crisis crippling our nation.
1. Szent-Gy rgyi, A., Bioenergetics. Academic Press, New York, pg. 112, 1957.
2. Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Hakala, J.C., Optimum Levels of Iodine for
Greatest Mental and Physical Health. The Original Internist, 9:5-20, 2002.
3. Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Hakala, J.C., Measurement of urinary iodide
levels by ion-selective electrode: Improved sensitivity and specificity by
chromatography on anion-exchange resin. The Original Internist, 11(4):19-32,
4. Abraham, G.E., Flechas, J.D., Hakala, J.C., Orthoiodosupplementation: Iodine
sufficiency of the whole human body. The Original Internist, 9:30-41, 2002.
5. Abraham, G.E., The safe and effective implementation of
orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice. The Original Internist, 11:17-36,
6. Abraham, G.E., The concept of orthoiodosupplementation and its clinical
implications. The Original Internist, 11(2):29-38, 2004.
7. Abraham, G.E., The historical background of the iodine project. The Original
Internist, 12(2):57-66, 2005.
8. Abraham, G.E., Brownstein, D., Evidence that the administration of Vitamin C
improves a defective cellular transport mechanism for iodine: A case report.
The Original Internist, 12(3):125-130, 2005.
9. Abraham, G.E., The Wolff-Chaikoff Effect: Crying Wolf? The Original
Internist, 12(3):112-118, 2005.
10. Abraham, G.E., Iodine Supplementation Markedly Increases Urinary Excretion
of Fluoride and Bromide. Townsend Letter, 238:108-109, 2003.
11. Abraham, G.E., Serum inorganic iodide levels following ingestion of a
tablet form of Lugol solution: Evidence for an enterohepatic circulation of
iodine. The Original Internist, 11 (3):29-34, 2004.
12. Brownstein, D., Clinical experience with inorganic, non-radioactive
iodine/iodide. The Original Internist, 12(3):105-108, 2005.
13. Flechas, J.D., Orthoiodosupplementation in a primary care practice. The
Original Internist, 12(2):89-96, 2005.
14. Coindet, J.F., Decouverte d'un nouveau rem de contre le goitre. Ann. Clin.
Phys., 15:49, 1820.
15. Gennaro A.R., Remington: The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th
Edition, 1995, Mack Publishing Co., 1267.
16. Lugol, J.G.A., Mémoire sur l'emploi de l'iode dans les maladies
17. Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia 28th edition. J.E.F. Reynolds. Editor:
The Pharmaceutical Press, pg. 865, 1982.
18. Kelly, Francis C., Iodine in Medicine and Pharmacy Since its Discovery
1811-1961. Proc R Soc Med 54:831-836, 1961.
19. Hartsock, C.L., Iodized Salt in the Prevention of Goiter. Jour. Amer. Med.
Assoc., 86:1334-1338, 1926.
20. Wolff, J., Iodide Goiter and the Pharmacologic Effects of Excess Iodide.
Am. J. Med., 47:101-124, 1969.
W.R., Eskin, B.A., Low., D.A., et al, Iodine Replacement in Fibrocystic Disease
of the Breast. Can.
J. Surg., 36:453-460, 1993.
About the author:
Guy E. Abraham, M.D., is a former Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and
Endocrinology at the UCLA School of Medicine. Some 36 years ago, he pioneered
the development of assays to measure minute quantities of steroid hormones in
biological fluids. He has been honored as follows: General Diagnostic Award
from the Canadian Association of Clinical Chemists, 1974; the "Medaille
d'Honneur" from the University if Liege, Belgium, 1976; the Senior Investigator Award of
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